Passenger rail has been a valuable option in Nebraska. In the 1800s and well into the 1970s electric streetcars and passenger trains were part of public transportation for Nebraskans. Since electric streetcars were discontinued in the 1950s and commuter rail service was abandoned in the 1970s, there has been talk about whether to bring them back. The electric streetcar system helped grow our two major metro areas into monocentric cities, defined as having a single central business district, usually the downtown area (Moore, Thorsne, Appleyard, 2007). Examples of Lincoln and Omaha monocentric patterns can be seen in figures one and two.
As another season of college football gets underway, it seems like a good time to look back and see how we got here.
College football began in the late nineteenth century as an upper-class, Ivy League endeavor. Princeton, Yale, and Harvard led the way as the sons of the rich and famous first experimented with the new game of American football. The game was really an amalgam of rugby and soccer but eventually took on its own characteristics separate from all other games.
The man who should be credited with many of the changes that put the American stamp on the game was Walter Camp. In fact, he is often referred to as the “Father of American Football.”
Many people associate the civil rights movement with the 1960s; however, the civil rights movement has a tradition stretching back into the early nineteenth century. The Tuskegee Airmen furthered this movement in the 1940s. These airmen showed courage and fought with honor while serving the United States Air Force during World War II, even though they had to fight for their opportunity. Their character and success challenged the long-held belief that blacks had little to offer the military. Their valor and bravery, along with the achievements of other black soldiers from World War II, led to the desegregation of the armed forces by President Truman in 1948.
Who were these Tuskegee Airmen? They were the first black pilots in United States military history. While running for his third presidential term, Franklin D. Roosevelt promised to allow blacks to become military pilots. The War Department agreed on the condition that they were trained and served in segregated units. The first black flying unit was the 99th Pursuit Squadron, which was activated in March 1941 at Chanute Field, Illinois. It opened without pilots because they did not have any black pilots trained yet.
People often joke that scientists can’t seem to get things right. One year eggs are a good source of protein, the next year eggs contain too much cholesterol. Why can’t scientists seem to agree on anything? And if they’re always changing their minds about things, why should we trust anything they say?
To understand inconsistencies in science we must first understand the function of science. At its core, science is an explanation of reality based on observations. Science is not reality; it is simply our best explanation of reality. Scientific theories, such as the theory of gravity, result from the accumulation of these explanations. Scientific theories describe how we have observed the world act in the past and how we assume the world will continue to act in the future. It is important to remember that scientific theories don’t guide the behavior of the events we experience. Theories are simply our description of the underlying principles of how these events behave.